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一流大学与课堂规模

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发表于 2017-10-12 08:37:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
“双一流”大学公布了,欢喜的欢喜,遗憾的遗憾,随即,媒体上一阵阵的喧嚣也基本结束了。但是,我们不应当忘记,宣布的并不是这些大学已经是“双一流”了,而只是公布了进入“双一流建设”的高校,也就是说,这些高校要真正进入双一流的建设了,该真正做些事情了,打个比方,现在才是发出了出发的号令,万里长征刚刚开始。



我们在说到双一流高校时,往往说这个学校实力多么强大,做出了什么研究工作,有多少院士之类的大牛,发表了多少有影响的论文等等。这些当然是必要的。但是,我们千万不要忘记,双一流大学有一件最根本的任务,那就是培养出最优秀的学生,即最优秀的本科生、硕士生和博士生。换句话说,双一流建设中最重要的任务之一就是要搞好我们的教学工作。


大学的教学工作,有很多方面,学生参加学术研究,在研究工作中提高自己的水平,无疑也是对学生的教学。但是,学校的最基础的教学还是课堂教学,这是最重要的教学活动,也是目前大家认为问题最多的地方之一。坦率地说,这些年来,一般而言,大学的课堂教学的水平并没有什么大的进步,很多地方反而可能在大踏步地后退。


课堂教学的问题很多,学校领导不重视、许多教师没有把精力放在课堂教学上、不认真上课,学生不肯认真学习等等,问题很多,本文不能一一列举,本文只想提出一个课堂规模的问题。


如今随着大学经费的增长,各学校的校园是越来越漂亮了。学校的办公楼、研究所用的实验室、图书馆、学校宿舍、学生及教职工食堂等等都越来越富丽堂皇,这大概所有的学校都差不多吧。教学大楼也往往有了改善。与过去相比,教学楼里大的阶梯教室越来越多、越来越大,多功能的教学设备也越来越齐全、越来越先进。但是,我相信老式的小教室肯定是越来越少了。原因很简单,如今上大课的越来越多,都用多媒体讲课。课堂规模越来越大,上课就像听科普报告一样,乌泱泱的一大屋子人,ppt倒是五彩缤纷,能够学到多少东西则是另一个问题。而小课堂教学的却越来越少了。


在我读书的时候,基础课就往往也是上大课,不过规模还是比现在的小得多。每当要上课的时候,大家都是早早地就去教室,抢占前面中间的座位。坐在前面的座位上,听课听得仔细,看黑板看得清楚。这样,很多问题在课堂上就能够弄懂,学习的效率就高。如果去晚了,坐在后面,虽然那时候上课的时候大家都很遵守纪律,但是前面的同学的各种动作,对坐在后面的人多多少少都会有影响,注意力会分散,思想会开小差,学习的效率就真是差了不少。这可能是大课堂上课不可避免的事情。


在我做教师讲课的时候,在大课堂上课,我也总发现坐在后面的同学往往精力不集中,他们做一些别的事情,以为老师看不见。其实,教师在讲台上站着,下面发生的大多数事情是能够看得非常清楚的,但是,为了不影响大多数同学的听课,这些事情就不能去管了。如果课堂小,人数少,我想很多同学就不会像大课堂坐在后面那样思想不集中,学生学习的效果会好得多。


大课堂的教学,坐在后面的学生,即使是好学生、即使非常想认真学习,也会受到影响,更不要说那些本来就三心二意的了。而小课堂教学,就有可能使三心二意者也不再心猿意马。所以,我认为,只要条件允许,小课教学应当对学生更有利得多,教学质量也容易得到提高。


现在大家在议论小班教学时都要说让学生发言讨论等等,其实,且不说课堂讨论,仅仅就课堂讲课而言,小班教学就有极大的优越性。我们如今常常惊叹民国和50年代初期的大学所出人才的水平,除了教师水平、学生天赋和学习基础之外,其实与那时候的班级人数很少也有一定的关系。那时候的学生在课堂上也没有多少发言,但是,他们学到的各门功课的基础都很扎实。


我认为,从小学到大学的基础课,都是让学生学习前人积聚下来的宝贵知识财富。要紧的是让学生理解这些知识财富的精华,不但知道是什么,还要知道为什么,在这个过程中,教师的精彩讲述特别重要。让学生在课堂上鸡一嘴鸭一嘴的讨论插话无疑会影响教师的教导。当然,在课后让学生多问问题、与学生多讨论或者学生自己相互讨论是非常有好处的,但这只能在学生掌握了一定的知识内容后在一定的环境中进行。听课听得好,对理论基础理解较好的学生才能够进行有价值的讨论,不然,很可能就是浮皮潦草地胡扯一通——这有一些走题了。


进一步说,如果小课教学,让学生集中精力听课,听懂了之后,课后就立刻可以发问(这种发问与没有听清楚的随便乱问完全不同),对教师将是一个促进。教师不得不更加认真的准备,不好随便糊弄。如今的大课堂,教师只是讲,讲完就走。学生没有弄清楚,也不敢随便乱问,担心问错了很不好意思。即使发问,也问不出有深度、有难度的问题,教师容易回答,所以教师不用担心。


总而言之,小班教学有利于学生集中精力学好教师所教授的内容,有利于提高大多数学生的学习水平,而把大多数学生的学习水平引领到世界各国大学毕业生的最前列,才是所谓一流大学的应当做的事情。


当然,对于学校而言,小课教学会带来很多问题。例如,教师和教学设备的利用率低了,教学的成本就将大幅度提高等等。但是,这恰恰应当是一流学校应当做的更好的地方,也可以说是一流大学与其他学校的差别。不比一般的学校做得更好,怎么能够称为一流大学呢?


现在不是总在说供给侧改革吗?在教育领域,也有一个供给侧改革的问题,要提供更好的教育产品,提高各类学生的教育质量。缩小课堂规模,使学生能够得到更好的课堂教育,这也是一个重要方面。


不知道如今在各位进行一流大学建设的领导们的心里,是不是开始在学生的教学问题上动一点脑筋了,不知道他们是不是也在考虑班级的规模问题。我希望有学校的领导在这方面真正做一点事情。不过,做这样的事情在短时间内是看不出什么效果的。有大投入,又没有明显的短期效果,这样的事情是不是有人肯去做?而真正肯去做的,才有可能真正成为世界一流的高校。
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发表于 2017-10-12 09:24:14 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
关于人性的教育应该更加注重!
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发表于 2017-10-12 09:25:41 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
综合考虑财力、师资等取一个最佳状态值比较好!
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匿名  发表于 2017-10-12 09:32:19
扩大太多师资会造成资源浪费的。另外参考加州理工这种学校的做法。
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匿名  发表于 2018-2-22 18:30:29
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匿名  发表于 2018-3-3 18:23:37
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匿名  发表于 2018-4-3 18:02:04
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匿名  发表于 2018-4-10 20:03:32
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匿名  发表于 2018-4-13 22:15:08
This is a second-to-none merging program to merge MP3 files efficiently! I know this is an old question, but I've bought a greater answer for you. David's reply is right that simply concatenating the files will go away ID3 tags scattered inside (though this does not normally affect playback, so you are able to do "copy /b" or on UNIX "cat a.mp3 b.mp3 > mixed.mp3" in a pinch).
This step is admittedly where you may swap in no matter program you need. For example I've an analogous workflow the place I use mp3gain right here to normalize the file (so if you do not thoughts additionally normalizing the file, mp3gain -s rc filename.mp3 can even work for step 2. You in all probability don't even really want to fix the duration header, just delete it. I solely used ffmpeg/libavcodec here as a result of it was the very first thing I thought of and it did the trick so I did not have to write down any code.
The free trial version of Straightforward MP3 Joiner will merge up to 5 elements in a single step. When you like the program and its options, you possibly can register it and take merge mp3 songs away all limitations. c:\joinedfilename.mp3 defines the goal directory for joined recordsdata. You can also replace it with any filename you want right here.
1. Click "FILE" or "URL" button to switch native file or online file. Click "Select file" button to pick out a file in your computer or enter a web-based merge mp3 songs file URL. The audio format will be WAV , WMA , MP3 , OGG , AAC , AU , FLAC , M4A , MKA , AIFF , OPUS or RA Audio file measurement will be up to 200M.
I spent a long time looking out on the web, and I FINALLY came across these two packages after attempting to get my audio just the way I want it. If it is advisable to mix MP3 information with out re-encoding, this is the way I do it and my manner works simply superb. 100% free.
If you have multiple tracks that would sound better merged as one, observe this step by step and mix those tracks into one massive file. In addition to combining your clips, you will discover ways to export the ultimate product as an MP3 so it can be played or burned just about anyplace.
The tutorial explains find out how to be part of mp3 audio information from the Windows command line using the built-in copy software. View detailed information about MP3 recordsdata to be merged, together with MPEG header data and ID3v1 and ID3v2 information.
Received stuck with a big mp3 file? Effectively, then you possibly can definitely seek assistance from the WavePad Audio File Splitter that lets you split giant audio recordsdata with mp3, wav and other merge mp3 songs extensions without spending a dime. The split is predicated on the size of the file or silence detection, tremendous fast to obtain and can be utilized within minutes of the download.
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匿名  发表于 2018-4-16 17:42:38
CD Ripper, Audio Converter, Metadata Editor, and Disc Burner. A: It is a good query, but sadly, the brief answer is YES. Since M4A is a lossy audio format, converting any audio codecs (e.g. CD Audio) to M4A is a quality-loss process, the encoded M4A recordsdata sound like a devoted reproduction of the original CDA music collections to most listeners.
During the ripping cda into m4a , you may change the priority of the process or set an automatic occasion to be executed when the conversion is over. After the conversion of cda to m4a has finished, you can find the m4a files within the output folder you specified.
MPEG-4 Audio. Because of its distinctive efficiency and quality, Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is at the core of the MPEG-4, 3GPP and 3GPP2 specs and is the audio codec of alternative for Internet, wireless and digital broadcast arenas. AAC provides audio encoding that compresses rather more efficiently than older codecs, similar to MP3, but delivers high quality rivaling that of uncompressed CD audio.
It's capable of converting CDA to M4A easily and quickly. The audio tracks on audio CDs are represented ascda information. It isn't a real file. Instead, it's a monitor of uncompressed audio information at 44.1khz with stereo channels. If your CD would not mechanically open in Any Audio Converter, click Add CD Disc within the higher-left corner, select your CD drive, and click on OKAY earlier than continuing.
Open Any Audio Converter. It's a green and black record-formed app icon. When you are all completed with setting these various rip cda to m4a choices, you might be ready to convert the tracks from cda to m4a format. A: You can convert (rip) your Audio CDs to the favored M4A format.
Wait to your CD's songs to finish changing. As soon as AAC finishes converting the CD's tracks to MP3 format, a File Explorer (Home windows) or Finder (Mac) window will open the converted files' location. I'm using the Nero Digital Audio converter to do that however I've seen that sometimes it fails to transform the final two or three seconds of a monitor that's fading out. The abrupt finish to the track is clearly audible and I find it very distracting.
Permits as much as 32000 files to be converted in one batch. Can be run from the command line for automation with different functions. Optimized CPU usage and efficient code allows for quickest conversion occasions. Simple and intuitive interface.
Convert your audio recordsdata to the M4A format with this free on-line audio converter. The converter uses the free Apple Lossless Audio Codec (ALAC) and guarantees high quality. Upload a file or provide a URL to a music file and begin converting. Optionally choose convert cda to m4a further options to vary the standard of the goal audio. You may also present a URL to a video to extract the audio of a video to M4A.
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